Should I label my resume with the word Resume?
No, it's obvious that it is a resume.
Should I fit my resume onto one page?
This is a judgement call. We recommend that when you can, you should fit it on one page. People with long and distinguished careers might have a need for more pages; college students typically seldom need more than one page.
How important is it to include a job objective?
This is a judgement call. If you write a generalized objective it appears as if you don't know what you want. If you are specific, you may shut yourself out of some positions that would help you. We feel its better to use a cover letter to indicate your objective; that way, you can use one resume for many jobs and customize the application in the letter.
Should I include personal information such as age or marital status?
In almost all situations, do not include such information. In the US, most employers would be breaking the law by asking for it.
How should I order things within education and experience?
Reverse chronological order. This helps to emphasize your most important activities -- the most recent.
Should I list grades or test scores?
In general, no. If your scores are low, it won't help. If your scores are high, it might appear to be egotism. Exceptions can be made for those employers that have a known preference for filtering applicants by scores. Also, a more subtle way to indicate high performance is to list honors earned academically.
Should I list specific course work?
If you have room for it, sure. It can help emphasize your expertise if you are a college student. It can help emphasize your desire to learn if you are already working.
How detailed should I get in describing my jobs?
Within the restrictions of clarity and brevity, as much as you think is appropriate.
For the college student, it is helpful and sometimes sufficient to include something like, "Other part-time jobs were parking cars, washing dishes, and mowing lawns." This signals to the employer both diligence and maturity.
Should I justify (left and right) the text? Or should I use only left justify?
This is a judgement call. If left and right justification creates awkward white spaces, then you may want to avoid it.
Should I include a section called References just to include the statement: References supplied upon request?
Only if you need to fill in some vertical space on the page. Who wouldn't supply references upon request? It's obvious so it's not really necessary.